Calligraphy Culture


Learn Chinese


Starting From Character-Lettering

Character-lettering (Chal) is an aspect of our daily lives. For countries, it is like air, sunlight and water are an important part of our lives, and people tend to ignore them. People use language communication in real time and with Chal for over distance and time Exchange. By Chal, you can understand the history. In history of different nations have developed different Chal in their development process. English words built from letters written from left to right can be said to be a linear or a dimension Chal. Chinese character written in like a drawing, from top to bottom, from left to right. One character is a small graphic, two-dimensional Chal. What is the biggest secret?

Chal is the hiding or back factor of ethnic, national competition in a peaceful condition. Efficient Chal brought rapid social development, efficient fight against inefficiency, using efficient type of peoples, countries battle with ineffective Chal States. Look back in history, the nation, the State has of course Chal change before the rise, or simplified, or to introduce, or innovation. In short, Chal is to be efficient first. China, United Kingdom, Japan and whole of the world are the same as such and as well as past, for now, so in the future.

 

Many people believe that 21st century is the Asian century, in fact, is the Chinese century. Why? Reasons too many, is no answer. In fact, there is no doubt. That is Chal efficiency. First of all, let us recall the development course of Chinese characters. More than 3,000 years ago in the Shang dynasty and the Zhou dynasty, Chinese characters have matured; using Oracle and inscriptions on ancient Bronze Pod, this type of ancient characters is called Seal Character, which norms inscribed in ten of drum-shaped stone blocks was handed down. Their characters are looks like drawings, writing just as drawing (figure a). Before the invention of brush, the ancient Chinese ancient characters, Seal Character was lettering by knife pen on bones or on the bamboo slips, is a time-consuming task. Therefore, slow development of ancient China, up to the establishment of Qin dynasty, Seal Character was used for at least 1500 years that few dynasties changed, can be described as a guarantee of social sustainable development of Chal. Spring and Autumn period and the warring States period (770 BC-221 BC), brush instead of knife pen was used first in Qin state. And, the Chal "transfers". Is actually the China ancient Seal Character off into Official Script style (figure b), Chal written more convenient, more in line with the common people, popular usage requirements. Chal efficiency is greatly improved, Qin became a great power, then unified six countries established the first feudal dynasty in Chinese history-the Qin dynasty. Chinese writing running style (figure c) and cursive style popular during the Tang dynasty (618-907 AD), is the peak time of the feudal society in China. Running and cursive has a higher efficiency. After the Tang dynasty, it was Song dynasty, which was economically the most developed of the dynasty in Chinese history. This is because the years of Qingli (1041-1048 ad), Northern Song dynasty people Bi Sheng (?-1051 AD) invented the clay movable type print, greatly improve the efficiency of Word batch processing. Can be found from the historical process of the China, Chal and writing tools (input method) and carrier getting high efficiency, the change of social progress is related to. It came by stages. For some time there will be sublimation. This sublimation, the needs of social development on the one hand, while also promoting social and economic development. In other words, efficiency of the Chal is the beginning of social and economic progress. Figure a, transcription of inscriptions on drum-shaped stone blocks, the seal character style takes one hour, if in ancient lettering with a knife pen on the Oracle bones, at least need a day. Figure b, using official script style transcription of a Tang Dynasty poem takes 20 minutes. Figure c, using running style transcription of a Tang Dynasty poem takes 5 minutes. This is Chal efficiency. That is why the 21st century is China’s century. Because, the Chal efficiency came back to China.

Figure a:

 

Figure b:

 

Figure 3:

 

 

Outside of China, in Asia, Japan prolonged use of traditional Chinese characters. Several times, before and after Meiji Restoration the Chal was simplified, reducing the use of complex Chinese characters and katakana, Hiragana pronunciation orthography, improved efficiency and simplify some Chinese characters makes Japanese writing easier, giving rise to the socio-economic development after the Meiji Restoration, as Asian powers, can also become economic powerhouse after World War II defeat. In Europe, United Kingdom the formation and development of modern English, was the United Kingdom's economic and social development strong began.

Chinese characters compare to English inefficiencies and shortcomings in the application of backward for nature study. Lag behind China in the past century and a half, is undoubtedly the Chal confusing. Japan reform Chal and an Asian power. Korea have conducted reform Chal, but writing does not improve it efficiency, do not benefit from writing reform. However, by the last century 70 's, Korea is one of the four little dragons of Asia. The reason, is a Chal application of the other. That is, bilingual side-effects. Korea, and Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore after the last century 70 's, sustained rapid economic growth, known as the four little dragons of Asia. This is because they are in or after the second world war in the 50 's of the last century has taken the bilingual education. After 20 or 30 years, when pupils have become a main force of social production, this society is truly bilingual society, use of both Chal in these countries and regions. Just think, one leg to walk fast or walking on two legs fast? The advantage of the Eastern and Western cultures, both can complement each other. For a miracle, is only natural, logical.

Simplify Chinese characters being used in 1956 in new China, increased efficiency in Chal; in 1978 on the date of Deng Xiaoping's reform and opening up, begin bilingual education. Into the new century it is already more than 20 years in the past, is the bilingual education started the harvest period. At the same time, Chinese characters input also benefited from coming of the Internet age, Chinese input and English typing speed had almost no differences. High-speed development of China's economy will continue in the future.

Some countries in Southeast Asia and Korea thanks to the adoption and diffusion of Chinese language simplified characters, thus the economies of these countries with China's development. Also use bilingual Taiwan and Japan why back to the original point? That's because, Taiwan's Chal is in traditional Chinese characters, words processing and writing are not easy as simplified Chinese characters. Japan’s Hiragana-katakana and partly by simplified Chinese character text form, Easy to write, but word keyboard input is not convenient, to the detriment of the information age. Efficiency is compromised of their Chal. Bilingual education in China after maturity, they were second-best system. Chal merits, seen in the competition. Bilingual education has a clear advantage is no doubt, in particular representatives of Eastern culture after reasonable simplification of Chinese Simplified Chinese characters and combination of optimized, representative of Western culture in English, it will form a powerful combination of language, named as the Chinese-English system, or the Ches. In a different language environment, economic competition is the language of the competition, are the strongest of the Ches. Countries are to develop; it must first of all to the Chal system transformation in Ches. In this way, Asia-Pacific countries and the United Kingdom has a unique advantage, their basic economic activity is in both language. Does not require any policies put in place, which also lead to system transformation in Chinese and English. Such as Korea, China established first overseas Confucius institutes, Chinese here have had wide-ranging implications. Korea is a mirror, other Asia-Pacific countries, a cycle of 60 years is enough. If taking a number of policies, such as Japan and Taiwan, directly at once full adoption of the simplified general table of China's State Council issued Chinese language simplified characters, after 3-5 there will be significant growth in the economy. Canada, and Australia and the United States and the United Kingdom come into force from primary school education in Chinese and English, after 20 years, these countries all have the Ches. What worries about economic setbacks?

From the moment, the opportunity and best of all is Taiwan and followed by Japan, and Korea. Other countries or regions are followed by South-East Asian countries, Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom and the United States. However, said, Chal is a arm of national competition among, efficiency of Chal is produced in the comparison. While throughout the world in use of the Ches system, efficiency of the Chal disappears. Therefore, the faster the better. The clock is ticking, time moved relatively better position again. Canada should be one step ahead, in Australia and South-East Asia in front of propulsion system in Chinese and English as soon as possible, there is everything to gain and nothing to lose.

Regardless of the word progress or bilingual system, lead to high performance Chal effects, Broadly speaking, efficiency Chal is not just text input speed, also the amount of information covering. Efficient Chal produces efficient economy. The economy will also be other economic factors affecting, but it always runs on the one step higher. So called Word-effect-order economy. Word-effect-order economic it will be a long-lasting economic. Even in 100 to 200 years time intervals, in parallel with other economic forms. Because, language is not changing. Non-historic opportunity is not available. Of this century, Word-effect-order economy is the economy system running in a Ches system. People can recognize and promote the word-effect-order economy are not many since ancient times. In China thousands of years, there is only the First Qin Emperor and Li Shih-min, Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, they respectively to "transfer", "running script", "Chinese simplified" and” bilingual system" played a role. See Canada, will pace than United Kingdom over two or three years.

Author: Ruo Ping Huang, Aug, 10, 2013 in Vancouver Canada.

Tel: 604 988 7818 ; E-m, huangruop@hotmail.com

Address, 209-160 E 19th Street North Vancouver BC, v7l 2y8, Canada


---作者  黄若平---

 文字是我們日常生活的一個方面。對於國家來說,它就好比空氣、陽光和水是我們生命的重要一部分一樣,而人們往往又忽視了它們。人們通過語言進行即時資訊溝通,用文字作超時空交流。有了文字你才能瞭解歷史。不同民族在歷史發展過程中形成了不同文字。英文單詞由英文字母從左至右寫來,可以說是線性文字或一維文字。漢語中文字寫起來象畫圖,從上到下、從左至右。一個漢字就是一個小圖形,是二維文字。文字最大的秘密是什麼?

文字是民族、國家在和平環境下競爭的重要武器。高效文字帶來社會快速發展,高效戰勝低效,使用高效文字的民族、國家戰勝使用低效文字的國家。回顧歷史,民族、國家崛起之前必然有文字變革期。或簡化、或引進、或創新。總之,就是文字高效化先行。中國如此;英國如此;日本如此,世界都如此。過去如此,現在如此,將來還是如此。

許多人認為,21世紀是亞洲的世紀,實際上是中國的世紀。為什麼?理由眾多,就是答不准。其實,這是毫無疑問的。就是一個文字效率問題。首先讓我們回顧一下中國文字產生發展歷程。3000多年前的商代和周代,中國的文字已經很成熟,使用的是甲骨文和鐘鼎文或金文,這類古文字被稱之為大篆。大篆被規範地刻在十隻石鼓上被流傳下來。其字如畫,書寫猶作畫(如圖一)。在毛筆出現之前,古代中國人用刀筆在甲骨或竹簡上刻字,是一件費時的工作。因此,古代中國發展緩慢,到秦朝建立為止,大篆被使用了至少有1500,也就換了幾個朝代,可謂是一種保證社會可持續發展的文字。春秋戰國時期(西元前770—前221),毛筆代替刀筆首先在秦國被使用。並且,發生文字「隸變」。實際上就是中國的古文字篆書脫變成今文字隸書(如圖二),文字書寫更方便,更符合平民化、大眾化使用要求。文字效率大大提高,秦國成為強國,繼而統一六國建立中國歷史上第一個封建王朝--秦朝。中國文字字體行書(如圖三)和草書盛行在唐代(西元618907),是中國封建社會的鼎盛時期。行書和草書具有更高的書寫效率。唐代之後的朝代是宋代,是中國歷史上經濟最發達的朝代。這是因為北宋慶曆間(西元10411048),北宋人畢升(?—西元1051)發明了泥活字印刷術,大大提高了文字批量處理的效率。從上述中國的歷史進程可發現,文字和書寫工具(輸入法)及載體的高效化與社會的變革進步相關,有階段性。一段時期就會出現一次昇華。而這種昇華,一方面是社會發展的需要,同時也促進了社會經濟發展。也就是說,文字效率是社會經濟進步的開始。圖一,抄寫石鼓文一段大篆文字需要一小時,要是在古代用刀筆在甲骨上書寫,至少要一天時間。圖二,用隸書抄寫一首唐詩需要20分鐘。圖三,用行書抄寫一首唐詩需要5分鐘。這就是文字效率。

 圖一:

 

 

圖二:

 

 

 

 

圖三:

 

 

中國之外,亞洲的日本,曾經長期使用漢字繁體字。明治維新前後多次對文字進行簡化,減少複雜漢字的使用而採用片假名、平假名讀音拼寫法,並簡化部分漢字使日文的書寫效率提高,從而出現明治維新後的社會經濟高速發展,成為亞洲強國,二戰戰敗後也還能成為經濟強國。在歐洲,英國的英文也有過創新發展的過程。英國的經濟社會發展強盛也從此開始。

漢字比起英文的低效率和在自然科學研究應用方面的缺陷而落後。中國在過去一個半世紀中落後了,無疑是文字困惑。日本改革文字而成為亞洲強國。韓國也進行過文字改革,但是,它沒有提高書寫效率,沒有從文字改革中帶來好處。然而,到上世紀70年代,韓國是亞洲四小龍之一。究其原因,是文字應用的另一方面。這就是,雙語並行效應。韓國、臺灣、香港和新加坡在上世紀七十年代後,經濟持續高速增長,被譽為亞洲四小龍。這是因為它們在二戰後或在上世紀50年代先後採取了雙語教育。經過二、三十年,當時的小學生已經成為社會生產的主力軍,這個社會,名副其實地是雙語社會,這些國家和地區使用兩種文字。想想看,一條腿走路快還是兩條腿走路快?東西方文化各有長短,兩種文字可以互相補充。出現奇跡,是水到渠成,順理成章。

新中國在1956年採用簡化漢字,文字效率有所提高;1978年鄧小平改革開放之日起,又開始了雙語教育。進入新世紀就已經是二十多年過去,是雙語教育開始收成期。同時,漢字輸入還得益于網路時代的到來,漢字文字輸入操作與英文輸入速度已經幾乎無差別。未來中國經濟的高速發展必將繼續。

東南亞一些國家和韓國得益于採用和推廣中文簡化字,因而這些國家經濟還能與中國同步發展。至於同樣使用雙語的臺灣和日本為什麼又回到了原點?那是因為,臺灣的文字還是採用繁體漢字,文字輸入和書寫都不如簡體字方便。日本的平假名、片假名加上部分採用簡體漢字的文字組成形式。書寫方便,文字鍵盤輸入不方便,不利於資訊化時代。它們的文字效率就打了折扣。在中國雙語教育成熟後,它們是次優體系。文字優劣,在競爭中見分曉。

雙語教育有明顯優勢是無疑的了,尤其是代表東方文化的漢語經過合理簡化後的簡體中文字和經過優化、代表西方文化的英文的結合,就會形成一個強有力的語言組合,稱之為中英文體系。在不同語言環境下,經濟的競爭就是語言的競爭,中英文體系是最強者。國家要發展,就必須首先向中英文體系轉化。在這條道路上,亞太國家和英國有得天獨厚的優勢,它們的經濟活動基本都處於這兩種語言環境中。不需要出臺任何政策,這些國家也會不知不覺地向著中英文體系轉化。如韓國,中國的第一所海外孔子學院設立地,中文在此已經有廣泛影響。韓國就是一面鏡子,其它亞太國家,六十年一個甲子回頭也就夠了。如果採取一些政策,如日本和臺灣,馬上直接全面採用中國國務院發佈的《簡化字總表》的中文簡化字,35年後經濟就會有明顯增長。加拿大、澳大利亞、美國和英國從小學起實行中、英文教育,20年過去這些國家就有了中英文體系。何愁經濟會倒退?

從目前看,機會最好的是臺灣,其次是日本、韓國。其他國家、地區依次為東南亞國家、澳大利亞、加拿大、英國、美國。然而,前面說了,文字是國家之間競爭的武器,文字效率是在比較中產生。全世界都採用中英文體系了,文字效率消失了。因此,先行者海闊天空。時間不等人,時間移動了相對有利的位置又變了。加拿大應該搶先一步,趕在澳大利亞和東南亞國家的前面,推進中英文體系早日實現,有百利而無一害。

無論文字進步或雙語體系,都產生了高效文字效應,從而出現高效經濟。這種經濟同樣會受到其它經濟因素的影響,但是,它總是在高一個臺階上運行。所以,稱之為字效階經濟。字效階經濟會是一種長效經濟,甚至要在一、二百年時間區間裡與其它經濟形式並行,因為語言文字不是說變就變的,非有歷史機遇不可。本世紀字效階經濟就是在中英文體系中運行的經濟。能認識並推動字效階經濟的人自古以來也不多。在中國幾千年就僅有秦始皇、李世民、毛澤東和鄧小平,他們分別對「隸變」、「行書」、「中文簡化字」和「雙語體系」發揮了作用。回眼看看加拿大, 步子會比英國漫兩三年。

 

 

 

黄若平  201388日,写于温哥华All Rights Reserved


 
 

4.  The words bird, chicken, crane, water, sea and river (鸟, 鸡, 鹤, 水, 海, 河).

The word bird (鸟), this pictograph is exactly come from birds drawing. The word is using today that you still can see which get the figure of bird. The writing below show how the character has been changed, which you can see that it has changed not much in the 4000 years. Another character is water. Its original looks and changes of writing on the picture below. Now we got 4 character here, Chicken, crane, sea and river (, 鹤, 海, 河). They tell you one way of Chinese character forming. Those characters are consisted of two parts. One part is called partly element. Some are at left other at right side. It usually tells you what the word connected to the assorting things. When you see the partly element is the character bird"鸟" that the words is bird like animal. When you see the partly element is water, that you know the words are telling some thing related to water. So on, the word of people in Chinese is "人" and "仕" is officer, "侍" is servant. They both got the partly element of people, so that, they all related to people.

 Idioms:

山不转水转,mountain does not move, but water move. Meaning things always change. We sure use a vary mind to think.

鹤立鸡群, crane standing among chickens. Means an out standard thing or people in the crow, which can be easy to be recognized.

流水潺潺, Water flowing and chan-chan. Describe the flow of streams and springs, such as a sound of water.

3. Term 57th president of unite states

Who is the 45th president?

Is Mitt Romney? Or, is Rick Santorum? No. It is more likely a female president for 45th. Therefore, you know who the term 57th president of Unite States is.

Why I can tell you that? Because, we will learn the Chinese word “易”, ‘change’. Every thing changes but the ward of ‘change’ its own. This is a word we have used for 3200 years and will go on.  The character of the word ‘change’ is come from the drawing of anole. As anole can changes its color anytime. Also the character “易”can be explained as combined by two words, upper “日”, sun and lower “月”, moon. In ancient china, people use sun to mention the days 1st to 15th of a month and use moon to mention the days 16th to 30th of a month. And sun meaning daytime, moon meaning nighttime. The two words “日”and “月”combine to one “易”, which is ‘change’, day change to night and night change to day and again and again.

We study “易”. Because it is so important for Chinese and Chinese culture we will study. The book YiJing, 《易经》, forms between 4500—3100 years ago. It is an ancient China philosophy and augury book. Contain the intelligence of ancient China. You study it for two years that you know yourself. For three years you know people. For five years you become a half prophet.

Two idioms:

移风易俗,change the custom and mores.

易地而处, change the positions to stay.  Ti means use the way of opposite side of thinking to think.

See the hand writing calligraphy below:



2. Similar the following words come from what they look like: “鱼,牛,羊,马”, fish, cow, sheep and hose.  They are read in mandarin as: yu, niu, yang, ma.

Fishes are very important food for Chinese. The idiom“鱼米之乡”means a rich territory got volume of fish and rice. Also, fish is the one can not be taken away from the menu of New Year celebration diner. As the pronunciation of the word ‘fish’, , is the same as the word ‘profit’, , in the idiom “年年有余”. This is a say that every year have profit.  So that fish, 鱼,comes to the diner got a wish of this year and the New Year get profit or deposit. Since China was a farming nation. Deposit is very importance for the life of next year. That is why Chinese like to save rather than spend money.

牛、羊、马, cow, sheep and hose, they are the animals of  Chinese zodiac. When hoes lunar New Year comes, you will get or send message from or to your friend included an idiom“马到成功” to wish the year of hose come with successful.   The idiom issued in Yuan dynasty. Describe an old general to take an order, be accomplished instantly while still ride on hose.  Things get easy.

The four characters hand writing calligraphy can be as picture below:


A fun to learn Chinese characters

1. Chinese characters come with the 5000 years historical of China. Even though it got many composing way, the basically is pictograph. You can see from the four characters below: 日、月、水、火 they are “sun”, “moon”, “water” and “fire”. As characters nothing relate to pronunciation. Doesn’t like English each word can be spell out its pronunciation. Characters carry only the meaning. Same character can be read in mandarin, Cantonese or other tens Chinese local language pronunciations. I think that we can try to read Chinese with English pronunciations. Characters are simples. Anyway, read them in mandarin are “re, yue, shui, huo”.

When they are written with brush the looking got little change, it still can be read. This is why Chinese character calligraphy written is art. Some article looks like modern abstract painting. But, they carrying the message the author want to tell you. Calligraphy is an important representative of Chinese culture, is a mobile architecture, solidification of music. Chinese calligraphy is formally listed on the “representative list of the intangible cultural heritage of mankind” last year.

The four characters below: 日、月、水、火 “sun”, “moon”, “water” and “fire” hand writing calligraphy can be as picture below:

Three idioms:

I)                   日积月累, depose in days and months, or, cumulate by days and months. In Chinese “sun” is the same as “day”. Since every day the sun goes up and down, the sun up means the day come. So use the same word. As well as the “month” use the same word as “moon”.  another idiom:

II)                日月如梭, sun and moon like a shuttle. and also used to mention time. For example, It means the time that goes very fast like a shuttle never stopping.

III)              水火不容,fire and water can’t stay with. Meaning two complete different things can’t be put together.   


六韬(The Six Principles of War

SUMMARY
         The Six Principles of Waris a famous book on the art of war in ancient China, it’s also called Liu Tao. Liu Tao is about the dialogue between King Wen, King Wu and Jiang Tai-gong. It has six different chapters which include Wen, Wu, Dragon, Tiger, Leopard and Dog, each chapter has its own contents. For example, Wen is about manage state affairs and managing people; Wu is about the use of military; Dragon is about the organize of military; Tiger is about embattles, weapons and environment of war; Leopard is about the tactics of war; Dog is about training and command of army.

   文韬    

   文师

       文王将田,史编布卜曰:“田于渭阳,将大得焉。非龙、非彨,非虎、非罴,兆得公侯,天遗汝师,以之佐昌,施及三王。”

  文王曰:“兆致是乎?”

  史编曰:“编之太祖史畴为禹占,得皋陶,兆比于此。”

  文王乃斋三日,乘田车,驾田马,田于渭阳。卒见太公,坐茅以渔。

  文王劳而问之曰:“子乐渔邪?”

  太公曰:“臣闻君子乐得其志,小人乐得其事。今吾渔,甚有似也,殆非乐之也。”

  文王曰:“何谓其有似也?”

  太公曰:“钓有三权:禄等以权,死等以权,官等以权。夫钓以求得也,其情深,可以观大矣。”

  文王曰:“愿闻其情。”

  太公曰:“源深而水流,水流而鱼生之,情也;根深而本长,木长而实生之,情也;君子情同而亲合,亲合而事生之,情也。言语应对者,情之饰也;言至情者,事之极也。今臣言至情不讳,君其恶之乎?”

  文王曰:“惟仁人能受(至)[正]谏,不恶至情,何为其然?”

  太公曰:“缗微饵明,小鱼食之;缗调饵香,中鱼食之;缗隆饵丰,大鱼食之。夫鱼食其饵,乃牵于缗;人食其禄,乃服于君。故以饵取鱼,鱼可杀;以禄取人,人可竭;以家取国,国可拔;以国取天下,天下可毕。

  鸣呼!曼曼绵绵,其聚必散;嘿嘿昧昧,其光必远。微哉!圣人之德,诱乎独见。乐哉!圣人之虑,各归其次,而树敛“焉。”

  文王曰:“树敛何若而天下归之?”

      太公曰:“天下非一人之天下,乃天下之天下也,同天下之利者,则得天下;擅天下之利者,则失天下。天有时,地有财,能与人共之者仁也。仁之所在,天下 归之。免人之死,解人之难,救人之患,济人之急者,德也。德之所在,天下归之。与人同忧同乐,同好同恶者,义也。义之所在,天下赴之。凡人恶死而乐生,好 德而归利,能生利者,道也。道之所在,天下归之。”

  文王再拜曰:“允哉,敢不受天之诏命乎!”乃载与俱归,立为师。

     Teacher of King Wen


    

         King Wen goes hunting, his subordinate Bian tells him the result of divination, he said to King Wen: “you will get a lot in this time’s hunting at Weiyan, but what you get, nor dragon, nor chi dragon, nor tiger, nor bear, you will receive a talented person who can help you to become a greater king. He is the teacher that god gave you, he will assist your career and makes it become better day by day.